Juliana (1909- ), queen of the Netherlands (1948-80), only daughter of Wilhelmina and Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, born at The Hague. In 1937 she married Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld, to whom she subsequently bore four daughters. In 1940, when Germany occupied the Netherlands, Juliana moved to Canada with her family. From there they went to England in 1944 and returned to the Netherlands the following year. Because of the illness of her mother, Juliana ruled as princess regent from October 14 to December 1, 1947. She became regent again on May 14, 1948. On September 2, after a 50-year reign, Wilhelmina abdicated in favor of Juliana, who was enthroned September 6, 1948. As a conscientious and hardworking monarch, Juliana retained the devotion of her subjects, despite political controversy raised by the Spanish and German marriages of two daughters and her husband's involvement in financial scandal. She abdicated in favor of her daughter Beatrix on April 30, 1980.