Breshkovsky, Catherine, full name YEKATERINA KONSTANTINOVNA BRESHKO-BRESHKOVSKAYA (1844-1934), Russian revolutionary leader, known as the Little Grandmother (babushka) of the Russian Revolution, born near Vitsyebsk (now in Belarus). At the age of 26 Breshkovsky left her wealthy, aristocratic family to join the followers of the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin in Kyyiv (now in Ukraine). In 1874 she was imprisoned in Saint Petersburg, and in 1878 she was exiled to Siberia. After her release in 1896 she founded a political society, the Social Revolutionists. Again threatened with imprisonment, she went to Switzerland in 1900 and to the United States in 1904-5. After returning to Russia for the unsuccessful Revolution of 1905, she was again imprisoned between 1907 and 1910 and banished to Siberia. During the 1917 Revolution she was released from Siberia by Aleksandr Kerensky and was enthusiastically welcomed in St. Petersburg, then called Petrograd. Her role in the Kerensky government terminated with the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks in November 1917. Breshkovsky was again compelled to flee and in 1919 went to Czechoslovakia, where she remained until her death.